Continuous Improvement

This is a work in progress. It’s my first attempt to link diverse topics from my work, and there’s likely an improved version on my blog.
A client’s employee complained about something I said in a workshop. Since then I’ve said it in almost every workshop, monitored it for effectiveness, improved it, and built upon it for this article, which is my first time publishing it and soliciting feedback so that I can evaluate its effectiveness. Here’s what I said and why I said it.

My workshops teach details but relate them to high-level concepts, such as the concept of continuous improvement for our work, students products, organizations, and selves. I illustrate the concept in a diagram that’s on the wall throughout the workshops, which usually last three days. Many people copy it, memorize it, or nod in agreement; few “get it.”
Someone “got it” then asked why there are so many online courses or corporate trainers making their living explaining such a simple concept. I knew he was a religious man and wanted to answer in terms he’d understand. I also didn’t want to emphasize one religion because there were people from diverse cultures in the room, so here’s what I said:
Jesus simplified his teaching into a few words yet there are countless books, interpretations, and schools of thought on what he meant.
The Buddha simplified his teachings into a few words yet there are countless books, interpretations, and schools of thought on what he meant.
Both said that different people need to hear the same message in different ways but it’s always the same message.
Several people seemed offended and one of them complained in writing, saying that I should “lay off the religious references, it offends peoples’ beliefs.” I’m sorry they were offended, and discussed what was said with senior management who felt there was value in using religion as a metaphor that helps more people understand the big picture. Our work is important: global healthcare for 7.6 billion people depends on a few hundred thousand people understanding and being able to apply a few concepts.
I decided the benefits outweighed the risk and said it in dozens of workshops since, varrying the timing and context depending on each group. I’ve also applied it to courses in education reform including how to install skills in innovation and entrepreneurship. The concept is to function as linked processes of continuous improvement.
The process approach to continuous improvement

A process of continuous improvement learns from itself and improves based on real-world, factual information information. This is analogous to a closed-loop process in computer engineering, which adapts itself depending on feedback from the real-world, and is different than an open-loop process that does not monitor itself for effectiveness and will not change it’s program.
For linked processes the output of one process becomes the input of another process. This can be two, three, or thousands of processes, all linked and influencing each other.
To help different people understand the concept I show what is and what is not a process using 1980’s and 90’s pop-culture and relate the lessons to international standards for quality control.

The image is a fun way to choose between the lyrics of two famous hip-hop rappers, MC Hammer (Stop! Hammertime) and Vanilla Ice (Stop! Collaborate and Listen) but it’s not a closed-loop process; I build upon that to show what is a closed-loop process and give examples of linked processes in continuous mutual improvement, the output of one becoming the input of another, all influencing a shared output that is monitored for effectiveness and fed back into the system.
We are all interconnected through linked processes. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link; it’s in our best interest to help others. To do that we must have not doubt the importance of all links and follow a method of creating processes of continuous mutual improvement.

No man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as any manner of thy friends or of thine own were; any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind. And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee. – John Donne ~ 1600 AD
Do not focus on words, understand the concepts
Mohammed, the prophet of Islam, wrote down many of his teachings but neither Jesus nor Buddha wrote down words, both saying that people focus on words rather than concepts or say the words without following through with actions. All used parables to relate their concepts to what was relevant to the people listening at that moment, having empathy for each unique person and saying what needed to be said at that moment, and those words can lead to confusion when taken out of context.
People get stuck on words like an elephant gets stuck in the mud – Buddha, Lankavatara-sutra ~ 550 BC
I speak in parables, so that, “‘though seeing, they may not see; though hearing, they may not understand.’ – Jesus, Luke 8:10, ~ 0036 AD
Men who have hearts with which they fail to grasp the truth, and eyes with which they fail to see, and ears with which they fail to hear. They are like cattle -nay, they are even less conscious of the right way – Mohammed, Koran 7-179, ~ 600 AD
Truth is one, though wise men speak of it variously – Hindu Rigveda, ~ 1500 BC
My finger points to the moon; do not mistake my finger for the moon – Buddha, asking someone to pull his finger, ~ 550 BC
That last one was a joke to see if you’re paying attention. The Buddha did use the quote about his finger, meaning that his words point to the truth but are not the truth themselves.
It turns out that people in Buddha’s time described him as “ever smiling,” always full of joy. He said, in different words but with the same concept, that all things are connected, all are one, linked through processes of continuous improvement.

Buddhists represent cycles of improvement as a rotating wheel; each of the eight parts of the wheel must be strengthened for progress.

I find it fascinating that the Buddhist wheel is similar to the FDA and ISO standards of quality control, which state that for a company to function effectively it must coordinate multiple processes through shared links. The FDA image even looks like the Buddhist wheel, with each spoke being important to overall improvement.

This is also the concept of new standards in education, the Next Generation Science Standards, which has been adopted by over 22 states and introduces engineering as a core science, equal to physical sciences, biologic sciences, and earth sciences.
NGSS uses the term “crosscutting” for linking concepts to different disciplines. For example, physics should be linked to math, and both should be linked to engineering. In an ideal world we’d also link these to reading, writing, history, and almost all concepts in school because in the real world everything is linked.
People in the healthcare and education industries earn their living by not causing harm to others, and not making things that could harm others. (Right Livelihood) We should celebrate our benefit to society.
Any system can improve. Consider that many medical devices cause harm due to design or manufacturing errors, insufficient user-centered design and testing, or incomplete quality control. Between 80,000-250,000 people die each year because of healthcare errors in the United States, and recently almost 400,000 people received toxic implants from a French company.
Similarly, our education system emphasizes written words, isolating diverse learners who are also likely to be from impoverished backgrounds. For example, 19% of the public is dyslexic, struggling with written words, compared to 55% of the prison population.
We can improve. Improvement requires setting aside time each day (Right Effort) to focus on learning (Right Concentration) until we understand concepts (Right Understanding) and apply them (Right Action).
As an example of where to improve, look at the Next Generation Science Standards logo and the FDA quality system regulations; they are “written” as performance standards and contain many words rather that may not enforce the concepts. To improve, brainstorm what it could it look like to get 3+ million teachers and 28,000 medical device companies to understand concepts rather than blindly following written procedures, and how we could measure and reward that understanding.
Don’t follow rules blindly
Jesus and Buddha both challenged existing doctrine and rules, saying people who recite words without practicing deeper meanings are hypocrites, distracting others from the goal, creating other followers of words rather than concepts,” the blind leading the blind.
Then they are like a line of blind men leading more blind men – Buddha, ~ 500 BC
They are blind guides. If a blind man leads a blind man, both will fall into a pit – Jesus, ~ 0036 AD
Being in the midst of ignorance and thinking in their own minds that they are intelligent and learned, the ignorant wander, afflicted with troubles, like the blind led by the blind – Upanashids, 3,000+ year-old Hindu texts
Many of society’s problems stem from the blind leading the blind. Consultants share catchy phrases with managers who then write them down as policies that are misapplied by employees and create mistakes in the workplace that impact the lives of millions of people. Teachers “teach” concepts like entrepreneurship and innovation by having students memorize lessons. Those students become teachers of other students.
We are the blind leading the blind and will only change when how we learn changes, focusing on concepts rather than words. Jesus, Buddha, and Hindu texts say the method to understand the concepts is by practicing moral, humble service and reflecting on what you learn in the process.
Help others
I have learned that people “get it” after seeing the cause and effect of their actions as part of a larger goal with shared, linked processes. They understand that by helping others they are also helping themselves. When this approach becomes part of a larger culture someone will help them, too.
This is a foundation of small-unit military training; you must understand the big picture and how your actions or lack of actions impact others in order to stay focused on your job. That’s why military leadership plans begin with “the situation” followed by “your mission.” It ends with “command and signal,” which are the links to other processes necessary for overall success. We learned this not by memorizing a Five Paragraph Operations Order, but by practicing simulations again and again, failing because we pushed ourselves, then conducting an After Action Review to learn from each step of the process. In other words, we learned about linked processes through our service to others.
For professional clients I often have to override their tendency to want to “know the answer.” I encourage deeper understanding by asking them to learn-by-doing, and try to make all activities shared by a group to develop interdependency. I use a range of projects depending on each client’s background and needs. We create new things, work on challenging concepts, and apply these lessons to the regulations. I serve as a guide rather than a lecturer, a coach rather than a teacher.
As an analogy, we don’t tell a child how to walk, asking them to memorize the instructions for how to walk. We let them try and guide them as they stumble, creating a safe environment. Similarly, we don’t tell someone how to ride a bicycle, play the guitar, how to invent new medical devices, or how to be an entrepreneur. We let them try, fail, learn, and try again until they understand the concept that there is no failure, only opportunities to improve.
“It is failure that brings improvement.” – Henry Petroski, failure analysis professor

As an individual, you must do this on your own. As the Buddha said, be your own refuge, no one else can help you, you must walk the path.
As a leader, consider the parable Jesus used of becoming a shepherd over a flock. For people, this means reducing their fear of failure by earning trust, being humble, and coaching rather than telling. Anyone can be a leader. It doesn’t take a title, and you don’t have to be an expert in anything. You can be a leader simply by contributing to a culture of continuous improvement, recognizing that we’re all linked processes and their success helps the success of everyone else. Don’t judge, help. A way not to judge others is to begin by not judging ourselves. Instead of judging others or ourselves we can put our minds towards improving the overall system through patience and perseverance. All systems can improve through gradual steps each day.
Small steps
The Buddha summarizes continuous improvement:
Every day you do more of what you know to be right and less of what you know to not be right – Buddha
For large corporations or education systems to know “what is right” and “what is not right” requires documentation, paperwork, and measurable metrics. This is were unnecessary bureaucracy begins, but with more people focused on the big picture we can all contribute to a more efficient process based on shared measurable outputs. In the case of medical devices this is reduced patient risk and increased patient benefit. In the case of education it’s healthy, happy, engaged students with wisdom at the level that benefits each individual most.

Gradual steps towards improvement is the essence of Kaizen, a Japanese management style with roots in Buddhism. Kaizen, which means “improvement” in Japanese, applies small, measurable steps to improve corporate quality systems rather than introducing new concepts that may confuse employees and cause more harm.
The Kaizen approach is echoed in the Tao Te Ching, the world’s second-most translated literature after the Bible, first written in China ~ 600 BC.
The longest journey begins with a single step – Lao Tzu (perhaps)
Personal Examples
I try to never repeat words that I haven’t verified as factual or experienced on a deep level of understanding. I don’t always succeed; it’s a process of continuous improvement. Here are a few examples:
Yoda & Dedical Devices
I demonstrate the Kaizen approach for complying with European Union Medical Device Regulations using another teacher based on Asian philosophy, Yoda.

The Yoda article is an example of different ways I use to explain concepts to different people. I created an entire course on quality system regulations related to 1980’s pop-culture. The Yoda article links back to the article you’re reading now, similar to the Buddhist concept of cyclical relationships and inter-dependency. It’s also a concept behind the International Standards Organization guideline for medical device quality control, ISO 13485, the concept of linked processes.
Education, Design, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, & Society
I created and led an engineering design course I created at the University of San Diego. It was “user-centered design,” I couldn’t imagine taking written tests to demonstrate understanding the concept of design and innovation, so I demonstrated the concepts by leading the course through linked processes of continuous improvement.
For their final project I said, “do something that meets the learning objectives of the course, ensures accreditation of the university, and meets the needs of all of you. It’s ambiguous, but if one of you learned the concept it will happen; if none of you learned the course I failed you and we will deal with that if it happens.”
This is what they did: created a shared goal of starting a company based on products they designed, created linked process of design, manufacturing, web design, and community outreach, user needs (the customer), and stakeholder needs (the university’s accreditation requirements).

Each sub-process had other sub-processes. For example, the design, which was a wooden grocery bag holder, went through multiple closed-loop processes of continuous improvement. This was to work with the manufacturing team to ensure the design could be made cost-effective by reducing scrap wood, and could be made by our manufacturing facility.

Multiple iterations lead to innovation, and you wouldn’t iterate if it didn’t fail some criteria. Thomas Edison, one of the most famous inventors in the world, tried for years to design the lightbulb. “I haven’t failed, I found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” And, he didn’t invent the lightbulb, he improved it. You can’t “teach” that, and a written test won’t let you know if someone understands the concept. A teacher must become a coach, a facilitator of continuous improvement where failure in a safe environment is combined with iteration to gain wisdom.
The class linked processes with others in a way I believe would benefit the world. Our manufacturing facility was the downtown San Diego public library “maker space,” which had a computer (CNC) laser-cutter. We designed products in Solidworks CAD software (that wasn’t the class, they learned in order to achieve the shared goal). Our manufacturing team was people in homeless camp that lived near the library – as crazy as it sounds, we iterated products based on the ability of homeless people to manufacture them so that we could sell them at farmers’ markets to help people carry more grocery bags using products they knew would benefit society. In other words, we linked the class processes to society in processes of mutual improvement.
My website and blog came from that class: I never ask anyone to do anything I wouldn’t do, so if students were willing to learn web design, CAD, and risk failure I would too. You’re reading the result.
What I Say in Workshops
Someone complained the first time I used religious philosophy in a medical device workshop. There were 22 participants in that three-day course and it was the worse evaluations I’ve ever received, resulting in a “corrective action” on my part.

I made changes in my timing and the context, monitored results, and improved. I monitor results by participant feedback in written evaluations that include numeric evaluation on a scale from 1-7, with 1 being horrible, 3.5 being average, and 7 being extremely beneficial. I track the results and monitor trends using the same statistical methods that are often part of the workshops.
We’re All Linked Processes
I also link this article with my travel articles because global healthcare will require global empathy. I incorporate these bigger-picture discussions into my workshops, when appropriate, emphasizing that we’d all benefit from linked processes of continuous mutual improvement. Those articles are in my blog. but I’d like to share a photo here, a sign in Nepal, in a remote part of the Himalaya mountains, where there is more poverty and illiteracy than most people reading this blog can imagine. Some parts of their government and some non-government organizations are trying to help them understand the concept of linked processes of continuous improvement, showing the links between education, healthcare, government and village leaders, etc.

In the city of Kathmandu, Nepal, I took a photo that explains it in different words.

Final Thoughts
The world would be a happier place if we all worked together; I have no beliefs higher than that.
Please contact me if you’d like to discuss how to create linked processes of continuous mutual improvement through sustainable businesses providing equitable education and healthcare.
This is a work in progress; I’ll probably always say that.
Please share if you think others would benefit.